package driver

Import Path
	database/sql/driver (on golang.org and go.dev)

Dependency Relation
	imports 6 packages, and imported by one package

Involved Source Files Package driver defines interfaces to be implemented by database drivers as used by package sql. Most code should use package sql. The driver interface has evolved over time. Drivers should implement Connector and DriverContext interfaces. The Connector.Connect and Driver.Open methods should never return ErrBadConn. ErrBadConn should only be returned from Validator, SessionResetter, or a query method if the connection is already in an invalid (e.g. closed) state. All Conn implementations should implement the following interfaces: Pinger, SessionResetter, and Validator. If named parameters or context are supported, the driver's Conn should implement: ExecerContext, QueryerContext, ConnPrepareContext, and ConnBeginTx. To support custom data types, implement NamedValueChecker. NamedValueChecker also allows queries to accept per-query options as a parameter by returning ErrRemoveArgument from CheckNamedValue. If multiple result sets are supported, Rows should implement RowsNextResultSet. If the driver knows how to describe the types present in the returned result it should implement the following interfaces: RowsColumnTypeScanType, RowsColumnTypeDatabaseTypeName, RowsColumnTypeLength, RowsColumnTypeNullable, and RowsColumnTypePrecisionScale. A given row value may also return a Rows type, which may represent a database cursor value. Before a connection is returned to the connection pool after use, IsValid is called if implemented. Before a connection is reused for another query, ResetSession is called if implemented. If a connection is never returned to the connection pool but immediately reused, then ResetSession is called prior to reuse but IsValid is not called. types.go
Package-Level Type Names (total 36)
/* sort by: | */
ColumnConverter may be optionally implemented by Stmt if the statement is aware of its own columns' types and can convert from any type to a driver Value. Deprecated: Drivers should implement NamedValueChecker. ColumnConverter returns a ValueConverter for the provided column index. If the type of a specific column isn't known or shouldn't be handled specially, DefaultValueConverter can be returned.
Conn is a connection to a database. It is not used concurrently by multiple goroutines. Conn is assumed to be stateful. Begin starts and returns a new transaction. Deprecated: Drivers should implement ConnBeginTx instead (or additionally). Close invalidates and potentially stops any current prepared statements and transactions, marking this connection as no longer in use. Because the sql package maintains a free pool of connections and only calls Close when there's a surplus of idle connections, it shouldn't be necessary for drivers to do their own connection caching. Drivers must ensure all network calls made by Close do not block indefinitely (e.g. apply a timeout). Prepare returns a prepared statement, bound to this connection. T : io.Closer func Connector.Connect(context.Context) (Conn, error) func Driver.Open(name string) (Conn, error)
ConnBeginTx enhances the Conn interface with context and TxOptions. BeginTx starts and returns a new transaction. If the context is canceled by the user the sql package will call Tx.Rollback before discarding and closing the connection. This must check opts.Isolation to determine if there is a set isolation level. If the driver does not support a non-default level and one is set or if there is a non-default isolation level that is not supported, an error must be returned. This must also check opts.ReadOnly to determine if the read-only value is true to either set the read-only transaction property if supported or return an error if it is not supported.
A Connector represents a driver in a fixed configuration and can create any number of equivalent Conns for use by multiple goroutines. A Connector can be passed to sql.OpenDB, to allow drivers to implement their own sql.DB constructors, or returned by DriverContext's OpenConnector method, to allow drivers access to context and to avoid repeated parsing of driver configuration. If a Connector implements io.Closer, the sql package's DB.Close method will call Close and return error (if any). Connect returns a connection to the database. Connect may return a cached connection (one previously closed), but doing so is unnecessary; the sql package maintains a pool of idle connections for efficient re-use. The provided context.Context is for dialing purposes only (see net.DialContext) and should not be stored or used for other purposes. A default timeout should still be used when dialing as a connection pool may call Connect asynchronously to any query. The returned connection is only used by one goroutine at a time. Driver returns the underlying Driver of the Connector, mainly to maintain compatibility with the Driver method on sql.DB. func DriverContext.OpenConnector(name string) (Connector, error) func database/sql.OpenDB(c Connector) *sql.DB
ConnPrepareContext enhances the Conn interface with context. PrepareContext returns a prepared statement, bound to this connection. context is for the preparation of the statement, it must not store the context within the statement itself.
Driver is the interface that must be implemented by a database driver. Database drivers may implement DriverContext for access to contexts and to parse the name only once for a pool of connections, instead of once per connection. Open returns a new connection to the database. The name is a string in a driver-specific format. Open may return a cached connection (one previously closed), but doing so is unnecessary; the sql package maintains a pool of idle connections for efficient re-use. The returned connection is only used by one goroutine at a time. func Connector.Driver() Driver func database/sql.(*DB).Driver() Driver func database/sql.Register(name string, driver Driver)
If a Driver implements DriverContext, then sql.DB will call OpenConnector to obtain a Connector and then invoke that Connector's Connect method to obtain each needed connection, instead of invoking the Driver's Open method for each connection. The two-step sequence allows drivers to parse the name just once and also provides access to per-Conn contexts. OpenConnector must parse the name in the same format that Driver.Open parses the name parameter.
Execer is an optional interface that may be implemented by a Conn. If a Conn implements neither ExecerContext nor Execer, the sql package's DB.Exec will first prepare a query, execute the statement, and then close the statement. Exec may return ErrSkip. Deprecated: Drivers should implement ExecerContext instead. ( T) Exec(query string, args []Value) (Result, error)
ExecerContext is an optional interface that may be implemented by a Conn. If a Conn does not implement ExecerContext, the sql package's DB.Exec will fall back to Execer; if the Conn does not implement Execer either, DB.Exec will first prepare a query, execute the statement, and then close the statement. ExecerContext may return ErrSkip. ExecerContext must honor the context timeout and return when the context is canceled. ( T) ExecContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Result, error)
IsolationLevel is the transaction isolation level stored in TxOptions. This type should be considered identical to sql.IsolationLevel along with any values defined on it.
NamedValue holds both the value name and value. If the Name is not empty it should be used for the parameter identifier and not the ordinal position. Name will not have a symbol prefix. Ordinal position of the parameter starting from one and is always set. Value is the parameter value. func ExecerContext.ExecContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Result, error) func NamedValueChecker.CheckNamedValue(*NamedValue) error func QueryerContext.QueryContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Rows, error) func StmtExecContext.ExecContext(ctx context.Context, args []NamedValue) (Result, error) func StmtQueryContext.QueryContext(ctx context.Context, args []NamedValue) (Rows, error)
NamedValueChecker may be optionally implemented by Conn or Stmt. It provides the driver more control to handle Go and database types beyond the default Values types allowed. The sql package checks for value checkers in the following order, stopping at the first found match: Stmt.NamedValueChecker, Conn.NamedValueChecker, Stmt.ColumnConverter, DefaultParameterConverter. If CheckNamedValue returns ErrRemoveArgument, the NamedValue will not be included in the final query arguments. This may be used to pass special options to the query itself. If ErrSkip is returned the column converter error checking path is used for the argument. Drivers may wish to return ErrSkip after they have exhausted their own special cases. CheckNamedValue is called before passing arguments to the driver and is called in place of any ColumnConverter. CheckNamedValue must do type validation and conversion as appropriate for the driver.
NotNull is a type that implements ValueConverter by disallowing nil values but otherwise delegating to another ValueConverter. Converter ValueConverter ( T) ConvertValue(v interface{}) (Value, error) T : ValueConverter
Null is a type that implements ValueConverter by allowing nil values but otherwise delegating to another ValueConverter. Converter ValueConverter ( T) ConvertValue(v interface{}) (Value, error) T : ValueConverter
Pinger is an optional interface that may be implemented by a Conn. If a Conn does not implement Pinger, the sql package's DB.Ping and DB.PingContext will check if there is at least one Conn available. If Conn.Ping returns ErrBadConn, DB.Ping and DB.PingContext will remove the Conn from pool. ( T) Ping(ctx context.Context) error
Queryer is an optional interface that may be implemented by a Conn. If a Conn implements neither QueryerContext nor Queryer, the sql package's DB.Query will first prepare a query, execute the statement, and then close the statement. Query may return ErrSkip. Deprecated: Drivers should implement QueryerContext instead. ( T) Query(query string, args []Value) (Rows, error)
QueryerContext is an optional interface that may be implemented by a Conn. If a Conn does not implement QueryerContext, the sql package's DB.Query will fall back to Queryer; if the Conn does not implement Queryer either, DB.Query will first prepare a query, execute the statement, and then close the statement. QueryerContext may return ErrSkip. QueryerContext must honor the context timeout and return when the context is canceled. ( T) QueryContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Rows, error)
Result is the result of a query execution. LastInsertId returns the database's auto-generated ID after, for example, an INSERT into a table with primary key. RowsAffected returns the number of rows affected by the query. RowsAffected database/sql.Result (interface) T : database/sql.Result func Execer.Exec(query string, args []Value) (Result, error) func ExecerContext.ExecContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Result, error) func Stmt.Exec(args []Value) (Result, error) func StmtExecContext.ExecContext(ctx context.Context, args []NamedValue) (Result, error)
Rows is an iterator over an executed query's results. Close closes the rows iterator. Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. RowsColumnTypeDatabaseTypeName (interface) RowsColumnTypeLength (interface) RowsColumnTypeNullable (interface) RowsColumnTypePrecisionScale (interface) RowsColumnTypeScanType (interface) RowsNextResultSet (interface) T : io.Closer func Queryer.Query(query string, args []Value) (Rows, error) func QueryerContext.QueryContext(ctx context.Context, query string, args []NamedValue) (Rows, error) func Stmt.Query(args []Value) (Rows, error) func StmtQueryContext.QueryContext(ctx context.Context, args []NamedValue) (Rows, error)
RowsAffected implements Result for an INSERT or UPDATE operation which mutates a number of rows. ( T) LastInsertId() (int64, error) ( T) RowsAffected() (int64, error) T : Result T : database/sql.Result
RowsColumnTypeDatabaseTypeName may be implemented by Rows. It should return the database system type name without the length. Type names should be uppercase. Examples of returned types: "VARCHAR", "NVARCHAR", "VARCHAR2", "CHAR", "TEXT", "DECIMAL", "SMALLINT", "INT", "BIGINT", "BOOL", "[]BIGINT", "JSONB", "XML", "TIMESTAMP". Close closes the rows iterator. ( T) ColumnTypeDatabaseTypeName(index int) string Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. T : Rows T : io.Closer
RowsColumnTypeLength may be implemented by Rows. It should return the length of the column type if the column is a variable length type. If the column is not a variable length type ok should return false. If length is not limited other than system limits, it should return math.MaxInt64. The following are examples of returned values for various types: TEXT (math.MaxInt64, true) varchar(10) (10, true) nvarchar(10) (10, true) decimal (0, false) int (0, false) bytea(30) (30, true) Close closes the rows iterator. ( T) ColumnTypeLength(index int) (length int64, ok bool) Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. T : Rows T : io.Closer
RowsColumnTypeNullable may be implemented by Rows. The nullable value should be true if it is known the column may be null, or false if the column is known to be not nullable. If the column nullability is unknown, ok should be false. Close closes the rows iterator. ( T) ColumnTypeNullable(index int) (nullable, ok bool) Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. T : Rows T : io.Closer
RowsColumnTypePrecisionScale may be implemented by Rows. It should return the precision and scale for decimal types. If not applicable, ok should be false. The following are examples of returned values for various types: decimal(38, 4) (38, 4, true) int (0, 0, false) decimal (math.MaxInt64, math.MaxInt64, true) Close closes the rows iterator. ( T) ColumnTypePrecisionScale(index int) (precision, scale int64, ok bool) Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. T : Rows T : io.Closer
RowsColumnTypeScanType may be implemented by Rows. It should return the value type that can be used to scan types into. For example, the database column type "bigint" this should return "reflect.TypeOf(int64(0))". Close closes the rows iterator. ( T) ColumnTypeScanType(index int) reflect.Type Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. T : Rows T : io.Closer
RowsNextResultSet extends the Rows interface by providing a way to signal the driver to advance to the next result set. Close closes the rows iterator. Columns returns the names of the columns. The number of columns of the result is inferred from the length of the slice. If a particular column name isn't known, an empty string should be returned for that entry. HasNextResultSet is called at the end of the current result set and reports whether there is another result set after the current one. Next is called to populate the next row of data into the provided slice. The provided slice will be the same size as the Columns() are wide. Next should return io.EOF when there are no more rows. The dest should not be written to outside of Next. Care should be taken when closing Rows not to modify a buffer held in dest. NextResultSet advances the driver to the next result set even if there are remaining rows in the current result set. NextResultSet should return io.EOF when there are no more result sets. T : Rows T : io.Closer
SessionResetter may be implemented by Conn to allow drivers to reset the session state associated with the connection and to signal a bad connection. ResetSession is called prior to executing a query on the connection if the connection has been used before. If the driver returns ErrBadConn the connection is discarded.
Stmt is a prepared statement. It is bound to a Conn and not used by multiple goroutines concurrently. Close closes the statement. As of Go 1.1, a Stmt will not be closed if it's in use by any queries. Drivers must ensure all network calls made by Close do not block indefinitely (e.g. apply a timeout). Exec executes a query that doesn't return rows, such as an INSERT or UPDATE. Deprecated: Drivers should implement StmtExecContext instead (or additionally). NumInput returns the number of placeholder parameters. If NumInput returns >= 0, the sql package will sanity check argument counts from callers and return errors to the caller before the statement's Exec or Query methods are called. NumInput may also return -1, if the driver doesn't know its number of placeholders. In that case, the sql package will not sanity check Exec or Query argument counts. Query executes a query that may return rows, such as a SELECT. Deprecated: Drivers should implement StmtQueryContext instead (or additionally). T : io.Closer func Conn.Prepare(query string) (Stmt, error) func ConnPrepareContext.PrepareContext(ctx context.Context, query string) (Stmt, error)
StmtExecContext enhances the Stmt interface by providing Exec with context. ExecContext executes a query that doesn't return rows, such as an INSERT or UPDATE. ExecContext must honor the context timeout and return when it is canceled.
StmtQueryContext enhances the Stmt interface by providing Query with context. QueryContext executes a query that may return rows, such as a SELECT. QueryContext must honor the context timeout and return when it is canceled.
Tx is a transaction. ( T) Commit() error ( T) Rollback() error *database/sql.Tx func Conn.Begin() (Tx, error) func ConnBeginTx.BeginTx(ctx context.Context, opts TxOptions) (Tx, error)
TxOptions holds the transaction options. This type should be considered identical to sql.TxOptions. Isolation IsolationLevel ReadOnly bool func ConnBeginTx.BeginTx(ctx context.Context, opts TxOptions) (Tx, error)
Validator may be implemented by Conn to allow drivers to signal if a connection is valid or if it should be discarded. If implemented, drivers may return the underlying error from queries, even if the connection should be discarded by the connection pool. IsValid is called prior to placing the connection into the connection pool. The connection will be discarded if false is returned. go/token.Pos *go/token.Position internal/reflectlite.Value reflect.Value *text/scanner.Position *text/scanner.Scanner
Value is a value that drivers must be able to handle. It is either nil, a type handled by a database driver's NamedValueChecker interface, or an instance of one of these types: int64 float64 bool []byte string time.Time If the driver supports cursors, a returned Value may also implement the Rows interface in this package. This is used, for example, when a user selects a cursor such as "select cursor(select * from my_table) from dual". If the Rows from the select is closed, the cursor Rows will also be closed. func NotNull.ConvertValue(v interface{}) (Value, error) func Null.ConvertValue(v interface{}) (Value, error) func ValueConverter.ConvertValue(v interface{}) (Value, error) func Valuer.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullBool.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullByte.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullFloat64.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullInt16.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullInt32.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullInt64.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullString.Value() (Value, error) func database/sql.NullTime.Value() (Value, error) func Execer.Exec(query string, args []Value) (Result, error) func Queryer.Query(query string, args []Value) (Rows, error) func Rows.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsColumnTypeDatabaseTypeName.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsColumnTypeLength.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsColumnTypeNullable.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsColumnTypePrecisionScale.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsColumnTypeScanType.Next(dest []Value) error func RowsNextResultSet.Next(dest []Value) error func Stmt.Exec(args []Value) (Result, error) func Stmt.Query(args []Value) (Rows, error)
ValueConverter is the interface providing the ConvertValue method. Various implementations of ValueConverter are provided by the driver package to provide consistent implementations of conversions between drivers. The ValueConverters have several uses: * converting from the Value types as provided by the sql package into a database table's specific column type and making sure it fits, such as making sure a particular int64 fits in a table's uint16 column. * converting a value as given from the database into one of the driver Value types. * by the sql package, for converting from a driver's Value type to a user's type in a scan. ConvertValue converts a value to a driver Value. NotNull Null func ColumnConverter.ColumnConverter(idx int) ValueConverter
Valuer is the interface providing the Value method. Types implementing Valuer interface are able to convert themselves to a driver Value. Value returns a driver Value. Value must not panic. database/sql.NullBool database/sql.NullByte database/sql.NullFloat64 database/sql.NullInt16 database/sql.NullInt32 database/sql.NullInt64 database/sql.NullString database/sql.NullTime
Package-Level Functions (total 2)
IsScanValue is equivalent to IsValue. It exists for compatibility.
IsValue reports whether v is a valid Value parameter type.
Package-Level Variables (total 8)
Bool is a ValueConverter that converts input values to bools. The conversion rules are: - booleans are returned unchanged - for integer types, 1 is true 0 is false, other integers are an error - for strings and []byte, same rules as strconv.ParseBool - all other types are an error
DefaultParameterConverter is the default implementation of ValueConverter that's used when a Stmt doesn't implement ColumnConverter. DefaultParameterConverter returns its argument directly if IsValue(arg). Otherwise, if the argument implements Valuer, its Value method is used to return a Value. As a fallback, the provided argument's underlying type is used to convert it to a Value: underlying integer types are converted to int64, floats to float64, bool, string, and []byte to themselves. If the argument is a nil pointer, ConvertValue returns a nil Value. If the argument is a non-nil pointer, it is dereferenced and ConvertValue is called recursively. Other types are an error.
ErrBadConn should be returned by a driver to signal to the sql package that a driver.Conn is in a bad state (such as the server having earlier closed the connection) and the sql package should retry on a new connection. To prevent duplicate operations, ErrBadConn should NOT be returned if there's a possibility that the database server might have performed the operation. Even if the server sends back an error, you shouldn't return ErrBadConn.
ErrRemoveArgument may be returned from NamedValueChecker to instruct the sql package to not pass the argument to the driver query interface. Return when accepting query specific options or structures that aren't SQL query arguments.
ErrSkip may be returned by some optional interfaces' methods to indicate at runtime that the fast path is unavailable and the sql package should continue as if the optional interface was not implemented. ErrSkip is only supported where explicitly documented.
Int32 is a ValueConverter that converts input values to int64, respecting the limits of an int32 value.
ResultNoRows is a pre-defined Result for drivers to return when a DDL command (such as a CREATE TABLE) succeeds. It returns an error for both LastInsertId and RowsAffected.
String is a ValueConverter that converts its input to a string. If the value is already a string or []byte, it's unchanged. If the value is of another type, conversion to string is done with fmt.Sprintf("%v", v).